Washing / Sanitizing

Introduction

The special PETs from which BetterBottle carboys and fittings are made have such non-porous, essentially unreactive, stain resistant, non-absorbing, hydrophobic surfaces that they are much easier to clean, sanitize, and rinse than glass and other types of plastic. Contaminants that stick to glass and penetrate other plastics soak away without brushing. Also, the fact that BetterBottle carboys are so light weight and essentially unbreakable makes them a joy to handle (see Durability at the left of this page). That being said, maintaining your equipment in good condition and achieving excellent winemaking or brewing results requires at least a basic understanding of best practices for washing, sanitizing, and rinsing.

IMPORTANT - BetterBottle has recently completed a comprehensive article dealing with the washing and sanitizing of home winemaking and brewing equipment. The article includes: 1) Extensive tables showing the resistance of materials to washing and sanitizing chemicals as well as the chemical composition of commercial products; 2) A description of very successful tests involving equipment-friendly, readily available, enzyme-enhanced detergents; and 3) Detailed suggestions and tips for washing BetterBottle carboys. Click HERE to download the PDF file of Washing and Sanitizing Home Winemaking and Brewing Equipment (19 pages 5Mb). Taking a little time to read this article will likely save you considerble time, effort, and expense. It may even save you from injury. The following brief paragraphs are intended only as bare minimum information.

Water Purity - A Few Words of Caution

The purity of tap water should not be taken for granted. Essentially all tap water, whether it is water from a private well or municipal water that has been treated with biocides, may contain significant concentrations of viable microorganisms as well as organic and inorganic substances that may have a detrimental impact on winemaking or brewing. And home water treatment systems can further complicate the situation. Microorganisms are likely to flourish on the large surface areas provided by beds of activated carbon and water softener exchange resins. These microorganisms are unlikely to pose a health problem under most circumstances and they can break down many harmful organic contaminants; however, they can also spoil an otherwise excellent batch of wine or beer. Furthermore, water softeners exchange salt ions that carry two positive charges and cause water hardness (e.g., calcium [Ca++], magnesium [Mg++], etc.) for twice as many salt ions that carry a single positive charge (e.g., sodium [Na+] or potassium [K+]); thereby, making the softened water significantly more salty than the hard water.

Conclusion:  If you are just getting started with home winemaking or home brewing and you do not yet have experience with a particular source of water, use commercially bottled drinking water, RO water, or distilled water for final rinsing and to dilute juices in order to minimize the number of variables and to gain a level of confidence.

Water Temperature - Very Hot Water is Dangerous, Potentially Destructive, and Unnecessary.

BetterBottle PET carboys are rated up to 60C (140F), the highest temperature considered acceptable for residential hot water heaters, and BetterBottle fittings are rated up to 75 C (167F), the highest temperature for the great majority of residential dishwashers. Water above 52C (125F) is generally considered to be dangerously hot and is not necessary for effective washing or sanitizing. The following chart, taken from the University of Michigan, Pediatric Advisor 2006, shows just how dangerous hot water can be.1 At temperatures above 60C (140F), it may not be possible to react quickly enough to avoid a serious burn.


Water Temperature

Time to Cause
Serious Burn


66C (150F) 2 seconds
60C (140F) 6 seconds
52C (125F) 2 minutes
49C (120F) 10 minutes

The European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease recommends that hot water should be stored at 60C (140 F) to prevent the growth of Legionella bacteria in hot water storage tanks, but water exiting faucets should not exceed 52C (125F).2

Important Note - The belief that The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Manufacturing Practices Manual requires washing dishes or bottles at temperatures of 77C-93C (170F-200F) is based on misinterpretation. Subpart E, Section d of the Manual states, "Sanitizing operations, including those performed by chemical means or by any other means such as circulation of live steam or hot water, shall be adequate to effect sanitization of the intended product water-contact surfaces and any other critical area." 5 Steam, hot water, and chemical sanitizers, including ozone, are listed as options and the operative phrase is, "adequate to effect sanitization" - if the process is effective, it is acceptable. The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) Plant Technical Reference Manual recommends a pragmatic approach to washing carboys, based on verification, and points out that manufacturers of polycarbonate (PC), resins recommend the use of non-caustic cleaning agents and a wash temperature of no more than 130F.6 PC carboys are prone to developing Environmental Stress Cracking (See Rinsing below) and release significantly more of the toxin bisphenol-A (BPA) when washed with alkaline detergents at elevated temperatures. For more about BPA see Purity/Safety at the left of this page.

What is the point to using very hot water when:
  • The risk of someone being badly burned is significant.
  • Most dishwasher detergents are designed to be effective at temperatures of around 49C-52C (120F-125F); especially if they contain enzymes, which degrade at higher temperatures;
  • Using sanitizing agents after washing is a far more effective way to kill microorganisms than using with very hot water, because bacterial and fungal spores and prions can withstand even boiling water; 3,4
  • Glass carboys are likely to crack and plastic carboys are likely to distort or degrade if very hot water is poured into them; and
  • Heating water requires a great deal of energy (money!).
Conclusion: Use water that is no hotter than 52C (125F).

1 Burn Safety: Hot Water Temperature. University of Michigan, Pediatric Advisor 2006 Retrieved on 03/15/2008.
2 European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease. European Working Group for Legionella Infections (Jan 2005). Retrieved on 03/15/2008.
3 Food Service Protection. BC Centre for Disease Control 655 12th Avenue W, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4. Retrieved on 03/15/2008.
4 Sterilization (microbiology). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on 03/15/2008.
5United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Manufacturing Practices Manual - Part 129 - Process and Bottling of Bottled Drinking Water Subpart E - Production and Process Controls (1995) - PDF
6 IBWA Plant Technical Reference Manual, International Bottled Water Association, 1700 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, VA 22314


Stain Resistance - It Is About More Than Being Pretty

The fact that BetterBottle carboys and fittings are amazingly stain resistant is an excellent indicator of the fact that they do not absorb substances from wine or beer and from washing or sanitizing solutions to a significant degree (see Flavor Scalping at the left of this page). This is an extremely important advantage.

To dramatize how unreactive and non-absorbing BetterBottle materials are, one set of representative BetterBottle parts was soaked for a week at 25C in a concentrated mixture of berry juices (blackberry & blueberry) and another set was soaked for a week in iodophor sanitizer (see Sanitizers below). These parts did not stain. By comparison, parts made of nylon were soaked for only one day in the berry juices and for just 20 minutes in the iodophor sanitizer. The nylon parts were badly stained. Iodophor sanitizer was also sloshed in a polycarbonate (PC) carboy for 5 minutes and the PC carboy was badly stained and damaged. The figures below shows the results.

- BetterBottle Components Do Not Stain -
- Nylon Parts Stain Easily -
- Iodophors Stain Polycarbonate Quickly -


Just imagine washing two sticky soup bowls, one made of BetterBottle PET and the other of a porous material. Which one will be easier to wash and rinse so the next person to use the bowl will not have off flavors and detergent in their soup - night and day, right? As a general rule, avoid using porous materials, especially those that stain easily or retain odors.


Rinsing - Absolutely Essential

This section about rinsing is placed before the Washing, Sanitizing, and Drying sections, because it deals with issues that are common to these other sections.

The most convenient way to rinse a BetterBottle carboy is to hold it upside down and direct a jet of water against its bottom, using a nozzle that extends far enough into the neck to prevent the outflow of water from blocking the water jet. A pistol-grip garden hose nozzle will work and there are many commercially available bottle rinsing attachments for sink faucets. A carboy fitted with a Racking Adapter can also be rinsed through the adapter, which can be turned to direct the jet of water against the bottom. BetterBottle fittings should be rinsed and dried while they are still disassembled after washing or sanitizing. Rinsing with tap water should not pose a problem when carboys and fittings are to be stored; however, consider using some commercially bottled, ozonated, drinking water (see Water Purity above) as a rinse following a sanitization done just prior to starting a fermentation.


Rinse With Hot Water
Using Racking Outlet
Rinse With Hot Water
Using Hose Nozzle



Acetal Parts
exposed to sodium metablisufite

Acrylic Cup
exposed to
mild detergent
Regardless of the type of equipment or what materials are used to make it, prolonged exposure to powerful washing and sanitizing chemicals, even at normal dilutions, may cause damage. However, damage is more likely when washing or sanitizing solutions are not thoroughly rinsed away and residues become extremely concentrated as the water evaporates. Surfaces exposed to the chemicals, especially the cracks and crannies, should be thoroughly rinsed and dried. Not convinced - look at how sodium metabisulfite turns normally tough, acetal fittings into powder or how gentle dish washing detergent causes crazing and cracking of acrylic parts. And that soft-glass carboy, which cracked for no apparent reason - it is just as likely to have been weakened by detergent- or sanitizer-etched micro cracks as mechanical scratches.


Compared to other materials (including glass), the special PETs from which BetterBottle carboys and fittings are made have exceptional resistance to attack by the aggressive commercial detergents and sanitizers traditionally used in home winemaking or brewing; however, these PETs are not expected to be totally resistant to attack under all conditions. Caustic Stress Cracking (CSC) is the term describing a complex, and often difficult to predict , process by which the chemical bonds of polymer molecules, ester bonds in the case of PETs, are more prone to chemical breakage when they are under stress from bending or stretch.1, 2 Metallurgists typically use the term Stress Corrosion Cracking or Environmental Stress Fracture to describe this type of failure in metals. The chemistry is complex, but the practical implications are not. A piece of PET from the wall of a BetterBottle carboy can withstand being repeatedly and sharply bent an astonishing number of times without cracking. However, placing a sharply bent piece of the PET in a concentrated solution of strong acid or strong caustic will, given enough time, cause cracks to develop along the bend, even though the rest of the piece may not show any signs of damage.

Conclusion: As a precaution, rinse all winemaking and brewing equipment, not just BetterBottle equipment, thoroughly after washing or sanitizing and store it dry. Be certain that internal component parts of equipment such as valves, air locks, or pumps (parts that may not dry if equipment is assembled) are completely dry prior to storage.

1 Environmental stress cracking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Accessed 05/15/2010)
2 Moskala,E.J. and Jones, M. Evaluating Environmental Stress Cracking of Medical Plastics. Medical Plastics and Biomaterials. May, 1998 (Accessed 05/15/2010)


Washing - Easy Does It

Reasonably hot water and an effective detergent will do an excellent job of washing carboys and fittings. Never use stiff brushes, abrasive scouring pads, or cleansers - they are unnecessary! The fact that BetterBottle carboys are light weight, clear, and their surfaces hydrophobic makes them easier to wash and inspect than carboys made of glass or other types of plastic. BetterBottle fittings are also hydrophobic and they are easily disassembled and reassembled, so thorough cleaning and inspection is extremely convenient. Best practice procedures for washing fermentation equipment will depend on many factors; however, the end result must be equipment that looks clean on close inspection, because scum or biofilm can protect microorganisms from sanitizing agents.1, 2, 3

BetterBottle has tested mild, enzyme-enhanced, environmentally friendly detergents (Seventh Generation Free and Clear Natural 2X& Super Pro-zyme Enzymatic Cleaner ), and found them to be very effective and essentially harmless to most equipment, even with weeks of exposure (see Introduction, above, for a link to the detailed article).


Beer Fermenter - Dirty


Beer Fermenter - After Washing With Enzyme-Enhanced Detergent


BetterBottle carboys are resistant, but not immune, to attack by very aggressive detergents, which were originally created for use with commercial, stainless steel brewing equipment.  As noted in the Material Specs section (see left side of page), strong caustics will damage PET. They also damage other plastics, glass and metals. Manufacturers of laboratory glassware warn against soaking glassware, especially large items made of soft glass (soda lime glass), in caustic solutions.6, 7,8

Use only brand-name detergents that have a good track record.  It is terribly important that caustic detergents are diluted according to the manufacturer's recommendations for routine cleaning (i.e., <1% by weight for Five Star PBW*) and contact times should be minimized. Instead of soaking carboys and fittings in high concentrations of detergent for hours and hours, use lower concentrations, smaller volumes of detergent solution, and agitation (it's easy with BetterBottle carboys and fittings). Also, replace fouled detergent solution frequently in order to maintain maximum cleaning efficiency.

* A 0.5% solution of Five Star PBW detergent can be made by mixing 5 grams per liter of water or 0.67 oz (19 grams or about a level table spoon) per gallon-US (3.78 liters) of water. Note that a 0.5% solution of PBW will have a pH approaching 12, whch is quite caustic.

With the exception of essentially pH neutral, enzyme-enhanced detergents, avoid pouring detergent powders or concentrated liquid detergents into your BetterBottle carboys and then, adding the diluting water as a second step. Also, do not pour caustic detergent powder into a carboy filled with diluting water or into a pot containing BetterBottle fittings. The extremely high concentrations of the detergent close to undisolved powder can cause damage to the PET.   Dilute the powders in a bucket and then add the solution to carboys or use it to wash the fittings.   
Important: Rinse equipment immediately after washing and do not leave equipment standing in spilled detergent solution. As water evaporates, the residual detergent solution will become extraordinarily concentrated, which is a worst case situation for damaging equipment.

Sloshing BetterBottle Carboy

Carboys - The most effective way to wash the interior of BetterBottle carboys is to slosh a reasonably hot solution of detergent. There should be no need to fill carboys more than 1/4 full with the detergent solution. The easiest way to slosh a 5 or 6 gallon BetterBottle carboy is to place it sideways on a soft surface and rock it back and forth at a frequency that results in maximum agitation. Three gallon BetterBottle carboys are so light when filled only about 1/4 full that they can be easily shaken in both hands. Placing a small, thick rag, such as a face cloth or an piece of an old bath towel, inside a BetterBottle carboy and refreshing the detergent solution, when it becomes contaminated, will speed the removal of stubborn debris much more effectively than using a brush, which might scratch the surface. As the hot solution cools, be sure to release the vacuum at frequent intervals.

Fittings - BetterBottle fittings should be disassembled, because disassembly and reassembly is so quick and easy and it will insure effective washing. A soft tooth brush and a small test tube brush or pipe cleaner will help to quickly remove stubborn debris from the surfaces of BetterBottle fittings. Use caution not to scratch the precision, conical, sealing surface of DryTrap air locks or the smooth sealing surfaces of Carboy and Pail Adapters or SimpleFlo valves. Soaking fittings in detergents, particularly caustic detergents is not an effective way to wash the fittings and is not recommended. Also, Remove metal parts when cleaning or sanitizing, to avoid possible corrosion.

Tubing - PET-lined tubing can be washed by partially filling it with detergent solution and, with both ends of the tubing sealed, pouring the solution back and forth from one end of the tubing to the other for a few minutes.

Conclusion: BetterBottle recommends using enzyme-enhanced neutral detergents for washing BetterBottle carboys and fittings. If you use other types of washing agents, be sure to dilute them in a bucket to the concentrations recommended by their manufacturers for routine cleaning and minimize the exposure of your equipment. Higher concentrations and long contact times should not be necessary and will likely shorten the useful life of your equipment.


1 Pan, RY; Breidt, F; and Kathariou, S. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms to Sanitizing Agents in a Simulated Food Processing Environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 December; 72(12): pgs. 7711-7717 (Accessed 12/05/2012)
2 Costerton, J.W. and P.S. Stewart, Battling Biofilms. Scientific American 2001, 285(1):74-81 (Accessed 12/05/2012)
3 Biofilm. Wikipedia (Accessed 12/05/2012)
4 Seventh Generation, Burlington, VT 05401 (Accessed 12/05/2012)
5 Super Pro-zyme Enzymatic Cleaner 888-983-0188
6 Care and Safe Handling of Laboratory Glassware. Corning Incorporated, Lowell, MA 01851, 2008 14 pages. (Accessed 12/05/2012)
7 Product Safety - Cleaning Laboratory Glassware. Ace Glass, Vineland, NJ 08361. 2011 (Accessed 12/05/2012)
8 Schott Technical Glasses - Physical and Technical Properties.  Schott North Americal, Inc, Elmsford, NY 10523, 2010 44 pages. (Accessed 12/05/2012)


Challenge Testing with Chemically Agressive Detergents- As noted above, BetterBottle recommends the use of an enzyme-enhanced detergent for washing BetterBottle carboys and fittings, because these detergents do not appear to cause any damage, even with weeks of exposure. However, from time to time, BetterBottle challenge tests BetterBottle carboys and fittings with Five Star PBW and CMC, which have been poplular with home winemakers and brewers over the years.The concentration of the detergent solutions are at the upper limits recommended by the manufacturer. The solutions are initially at ~50 C and permitted to cool gradually. The detergents are not replenished during the tests. Carboys are filled with the solutions for approximately 6 hours and fittings and their components are left in the solutions for approximately 3 hours. Such prolonged exposure is unnecesary and is most definitely not recommended; effective washing of BetterBottle carboys can usually be accomplished in under an hour and BetterBottle fittings can usually be cleaned in a matter of minutes (see above). After the prolonged test exposure, the carboys and fittings are visually inspected for cracks or other signs of damage. The carboys are also subjected to the Edge Roll Test (See Durability).

The challenge tests demonstrate that BetterBottle carboys and fittings are quite resistant to damage by chemically agressive detergents. However, even though the tests have been repeated many times over the years, the test sample is necessarily relatively small in comparison to the number of carboys and fittings sold. It should not be assumed that every BetterBottle carboy or fitting can be subjected to these concentrations of chemically aggressive detergents for longer periods of time or repeatedly, because damage is likely to be cumulative. Nor should it be assumed that other types of PET would yield equivalent results.


Five Star PBW
Low Suds, Percarbonate Detergent
Five Star CMC
Moderate Suds, Chlorinated Detergent



Resistance to Detergents

Test Conditions
Detergent solutions are at initially at ~45 C and allowed to cool under ambient conditions.
Contact time for carboys and fittings is ~6 hrs and~3 hrs respectively.
Such long contact times should not be necessary and are definitely not recommended.
Percabonate Detergents Chlorinated Detergents
BetterBottle
Materials

PBW1
Tested at 1.2% by weight

(Typical would be <1%)
-
Similar Agents:
B-Brite2, One Step4, and OxiClean5

CMC1
Tested at 1.2% by weight
(Typical would be <1%)
-
Similar Agents:
C-Brite2 and Electrasol3



PET - nominally amorphous (Clear)
OK

OK

PET - nominally crystalline (Opaque)

OK

OK

Teflon (PTFE)

OK

OK

Teflon (FEP)
Encapsulated Viton

OK

OK

Viton

OK

OK

302 & 316 Stainless OK

OK

Borosilicate Glass (DryTrap ball) OK

OK

1 A product of Five Star Chemicals, Denver, CO (www.fivestarchemicals.com)
2 Distributed by Crosby & Baker, Westport, MA (www.crosby-baker.com)
3 A product of ReckittBenckiser, Wayne, NJ (www.electrasol.com)
4 A product of Logic, Inc., Madison, WI (www.ecologiccleansers.com)
5 A product of Orange Glo International, Littleton, CO (www.greatcleaners.com)



Sanitizing - No Point In Overdoing It

The purpose of sanitizing agents is to reduce the number of viable microorganisms to acceptable levels, not to achieve sterility. Sterilization requires aggressive physical (i.e., flaming, autoclaving at 121C for 15 minutes, radiation, etc.) or chemical (i.e., ethylene oxide, ozone, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) conditions.1 Winemaking and brewing do not require sterile conditions; however, the numbers of unwanted microorganisms must be kept low or their presence can be detrimental. Sanitizing agents generally require short contact times, typically only a matter of minutes, to be effective. It is unwise to use higher concentrations of sanitizers than recommended by the manufacturers or to leave winemaking or brewing equipment in contact with the solutions any longer than necessary for the reasons described above (see Rinsing and Washing). Storing concentrated stock solutions of sanitizers for long periods in any type of carboy is not recommended. As a general rule, equipment should be sanitized and given a final rinse shortly before use.

BetterBottle carboys and fittings are exceptionally resistant to attack by the sanitizers recommended for use in home winemaking or brewing. Also, the special PETs from which BetterBottle carboys and fittings are hydrophobic and non-absorbing (see Flavor Scalping), so sanitizing agents rinse away quickly with a minimum of water. BetterBottle carboys are also so light weight they can be easily rolled and tipped to insure that every surface is exposed to the sanitizing solution, without using a large volume. Between fermentations, BetterBottle fittings should be sanitized at least once while disassembled in order to insure effective sanitization; after all, disassembly and reassembly is quick and easy. Prior to starting a fermentation, ported Carboys and pails can be given a leak test, a final sanitizing, and a rinse, with the Racking Adapters and SimpleFlo valves in place. However, be certain to open and close the valves a number of times while sanitizing and rinsing to permit the sanitizing solution and rinse water to contact all surfaces. PET-lined tubing should be partially filled with sanitizing solution and with both ends of the tubing closed, the solution should be repeatedly poured back and forth from one end of the tubing to the other for long enough to give adequate contact time.

A word about flaming - Don't! Obviously, flaming BetterBottle PET carboys or fittings will damage them. For what it is worth, flaming is also very likely to crack the neck of a soft-glass carboy or create strains that will make the neck more likely to crack later. Use a sanitizing agent instead. A 70% solution of ethanol is often used as a wipe-down sanitizer; however, alcohols are not as potent as other sanitizers and require longer contact times in order to be effective.

Important Notes:

1) Do not leave equipment standing in spilled sanitizing solution. As the water evaporates from the spilled solution, the sanitizing chemicals will concentrate to the point that they no longer remain fully dissolved, which is a worst case situation for causing ESC (see Rinsing above.)

2) BetterBottle strongly recommends using recognized commercial brands of sanitizers that have proven effective for home winemaking and brewing.


Conclusion: As a general rule, do not leave any winemaking or brewing equipment soaking in sanitizers for longer than the few minutes recommended by their manufacturers. It should not be necessary and doing so could shorten the useful life of the equipment.

1 Sterilization (microbiology). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on 12/17/2012.

Challenge Testing With Sanitizers - From time to time, random BetterBottle carboys and fittings are challenge tested with sodium metabisulfite, chlorine bleach, ozone, Five Star Iodophor sanitizer, Five Star dodecylbenene sulfonic acid sanitizer, and Selective Micro Tech CLO2 sanitizer, which are representative of products readily available to home winemakers and brewers. The concentration of the sanitizing solutions used for testing are at the upper limits recommended by the manufacturers. The solutions are initially at ~24 C and permitted to equilibrate with ambient temperatures. The sanitizer solutions are not replenished during the tests. Carboys are filled with the solutions for approximately 2 hours and fittings and their components are left in the solutions for approximately 1 hour. Effective sanitizing can usually be accomplished in a matter of minutes.. After exposure, the carboys and fittings are visually inspected for cracks or other signs of damage. The carboys are also subjected to the Edge Roll Test (See Durability).

The challenge tests demonstrate that BetterBottle carboys and fittings are quite resistant to sanitizer damage; however, even though the tests have been repeated many times over the years, the test sample is necessarily relatively small in comparison to the number of carboys and fittings sold. It should not be assumed that every BetterBottle carboy and fitting can be subjected to these concentrations of  sanitizing agents for longer periods of time or repeatedly, because damage is likely to be cumulative. Nor should it be assumed that other types of PET would yield equivalent results.


Selective Micro Tech
CLO2 Sanitizer

Five Star
Iodophor Sanitizer

Five Star
Star San Dodecylbenzene
sulfonic acid Sanitizer



Resistance to Sanitizing Agents

Test Conditions
Temperature ~24C
Test contact times are indicated for each agent

In actual practice, effective contact times should be just a few minutes.

BetterBottle
Materials


~2 Hours
SM-2L/5002
Tested at 10 ppm
Std. 5 ppm
-
chlorine
dioxide

~2 Hours
Household
Bleach

Tested at 3%
Std. 0.1%
-
sodium
hypochlorite


~2 Hours
Star-San1
Tested at 1:100
dilution
Std. 1:670 dilution
-
phosphoric acid
&
dodecylbenzene
sulfonic acid

~2 Hours
IO-Star1
Tested at 1:100
dilution
Std. 1:670 dilution
-
iodophor

~2 Hours
Potassium
Metabisulfite

Tested at 10%
Std. 1.5%


~2 Hours
Ozone3
Tested at
~50 ppm (in air)
Std. ~0.5 ppm
(in water)


PET - nominally amorphous (Clear)

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

PET - nominally crystalline (Opaque)

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

Teflon (PTFE)

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

Teflon (FEP)
Encapsulated Viton

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

Viton

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

302 & 316 Stainless

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

Borosilicate Glass (DryTrap ball)

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

1 A product of Five Star Chemicals, Denver, CO (www.fivestarchemicals.com)
2 A product of Selective Micro Technologies, Beverly, MA (www.selectivemicro.com)
3 Ozone is an extremely powerful sanitizing agent that leaves no residue.1,2


1 Hampson, B. Use of ozone for winery and environmental sanitation. Food Science and Nutrition Dept, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA. 2000 February. (Accessed 05/15/2010).


Drying Carboys - Uncomplicated

Glass is hydrophilic, so water forms a film on the surface and well-cleaned glass carboys may appear to drain dry even though they are not actually dry. BetterBottle carboys are hydrophobic, so small droplets of water will remain on their surfaces when the final rinse water is drained out. If a carboy is to be used immediately, these droplets of water will not be a problem. If a carboy is to be stored, shake it a little to remove some of the residual droplets and set the carboy on its side in a clean, dry area. BetterBottle carboys tend to dry out more quickly when they are placed on their sides than when they are inverted on the sort of stand that is used for draining glass carboys.